Espresso: small amount of nearly-boiling water is shot through finely ground coffee beans.
Americano: espresso (1 or 2 shots) and hot water.
Latte: espresso, and steamed milk with a bit of milk foam.
Cappuccino: espresso, steamed milk, and foamed milk.
Latte Macchiato: espresso is poured over foamed milk, creating layers.
Mocha: espresso, chocolate, and steamed milk.
Cafe au Lait: french-pressed coffee with steamed milk.
Cafe con Leche: brewed coffee with scalded milk.